Scientific explanations about ancestors' migration patterns

About GeneLife and Genesis Healthcare

Genesis Healthcare specializes in genetic research and testing and has provided genetic tests to the research and medical community for over 16 years. Our position as a leader in Japan is a testament to the trust we have gained with customers and partners over the years.

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With its own labarotary in Tokyo, Genesis Healthcare has pioneered genetic research and testing for medical institutions as well as direct-to-consumer through its brand GeneLife.

Over the years, more than 830,000+ users have trusted GeneLife and Genesis Healthcare to undertake genetic testing. It has allowed the company to validate and improve its science and algorithm over time.

Research and partnerships

Genesis Healthcare and GeneLife is actively involved in genetic research and development across multiple domains.

In the domain of ancestry composition and population migrations, Genesis Healthcare has been collaborating in joint-research with the National Institute of Genetics in Japan for more than three years. For additional information, please visit https://www.nig.ac.jp/nig/.

About population migration

IGenesis Healthcare and GeneLife have conducted extensive research to understand the population migration, tracing back to origins from pre-historic times to today.

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To trace ancestral migrations, Genesis Healthcare and GeneLife analyse two separate items, maternal and paternal haplogroups, allowing a holistic view of ancestral migrations for an individual.

About maternal haplogroups

Tracing maternal haplogroups allows to identify migrations from your maternal line over centuries and sheds light about the history of your female ancestors. Haplogroups are scientifically and internationally identified and categorized. They refer to groups or families of lineage, based on sequences of letters and numbers referring to the structure of the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree and how the branches relate to one another.

Maternal haplogroups and related migrations can be traced for both females and males as they are passed down by women to their children from generations to generations.

From a science perspective, mitochondrial DNA inheritance is analysed for decoding the information from maternal lineage.

As mutations occur across generations, analyzing the patterns of recombination and accumulation of mutations allow to identify common ancestors from approximately 150,000 to 200,000 years ago. Through sequence analysis, comparison and identification of differences, scientists have constructed a mitochondrial phylogenetic tree, showing how maternal lineage are related to one another.

Understanding the evolutionary path of the female lineage has helped population geneticists trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to origins in Africa and their subsequent spread across the globe.

Dates, places of origin and locations are estimates and may vary based on sources and evolution of research.

To learn more about our science, read more here.

About paternal haplogroups

Tracing paternal haplogroups allow to identify migrations from your paternal line over centuries and shed light about the histories of your male ancestors.

Paternal haplogroups and related migrations can be traced for males only. As females do not have the Y chromosome, their paternal haplogroup and related migration pattern cannot be traced.

If a female customer is interested to learn more about their paternal ancestors and lineage, it is recommended to connect with a male relative, i.e. father or full brother to take the GeneLife Generations test and share their paternal haplogroup report.

From the science perspective, Y chromosome is analysed for decoding the information from paternal lineage.

As mutations occur from generations to generations, analyzing the patterns of recombination and accumulation of mutations allow to identify common ancestors from approximately 275,000 years ago. Through sequence analysis, comparaison and identification of differences, scientists have constructed a paternal lineage tree (also referred as Y-DNA haplogroup tree), showing how paternal lineage are related to one another.

Haplogroups are scientifically and internationally identified and categorized. They refer to groups / families of lineage, which names are based on sequences of letters and numbers referring to the structure of the paternal lineage tree and how the branches relate to one another.

Understanding the evolutionary path of the male lineage has helped population geneticists trace the paternal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and their subsequent spreading across the globe.

Dates, places of origin and locations are estimates and may vary based on sources and evolution of research.

To learn more about our science, read more here.